Final version, as published in ISAST LEONARDO, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 199,207-210, June 2003, is available here, but unfortunately in Proprietary Document Format (PDF).

See for other file formats.

The original manuscript is available below in text format (figures were sent separately):

EXISTech Corporation's safebath project.


Image sensors, processors, and control systems facilitate automatic sensor
operated bathroom fixtures, systems for controlling bathroom fixtures, and
methods of bathroom fixture design, control, and management, as well as the
control and management of hygiene and water resources.  The networked
plumbing systems also help facility managers and law enforcement personnel
monitor the operation of various bathrooms in a facility or at remote
facilities.  Infrared sensor arrays are used for controlling several
showers, faucets, urinals, or water closets in large bathroom complexes.
Intelligent bathroom fixtures and systems based on computer vision help
enhance the privacy of users by ensuring that law abiding users need not
be disturbed by police foot patrols into the restroom areas, or by
security guards entering simply to make inspections.  EXISTech's
intelligent plumbing control systems presented in this paper maintain the
cleanliness, safety, security, and privacy of the occupants in a smart
bathroom environment.  Additionally, in some embodiments, the bathroom
facility may be used for mass decontamination during times of emergency
for processing victims of a nuclear, biological, or chemical incident.
Once ubiquitously installed for routine control of fixtures, the new
computer vision system provides many beneficial secondary usages such as
monitoring by triage staff, medical personnel, decontamination officers,
or law enforcement officers in matters ranging from simple slip and fall
accidents to fullscale terrorist consequence management.


This paper describes new approaches to the design of automatic sensor
operated bathroom fixtures, systems for controlling bathroom fixtures,
and methods of bathroom fixture design, control, and management, as well
as the control and management of hygiene and water resources.  Through
the use of new computer vision technologies, and image processing, a
safe, clean, and efficient facility can be provided, while reducing
maintenance and operating costs.

First impressions are lasting ones and when a person visits a company's
public bathroom, a perception of the entire company is immediately formed.
Thus many businesses are realizing the need to make sure the impression
is a positive one.

Fully automated bathroom fixtures will function without wasting
unnecessary water and energy which otherwise results with the use of
conventional manually opreated fixtures.  Touchless automatic sensor
operated bathroom fixtures have become very popular, and are beginning
to replace older manually operated fixtures.

Additionally, these new fixtures offer a high degree of hygiene by creating
an atmosphere where the user completely avoids any direct physical contact
with the unit.  As a result, the risks of spreading of infectious diseases
are greatly reduced. 

The new fixtures are quick and easy to install and require minimal maintenance.

Networked plumbing systems also help facility managers monitor the
operation of various bathrooms in a facility or at remote facilities.
Control boxes controlling several showers, faucets, urinals, or water
closets are now being used in some of the large bathroom complexes.


A ``bathroom'' refers to an environment that contains bathing or
sanitary fixtures.  Therefore, in this paper, the term ``bathroom'' includes,
for example, a toilet room, or a room that has a toilet and sink, even if no
bath tub is present in this room.  A bathroom may be a room intended for
individual users, or it may be a communal bathroom for use by more than one
person at the same time.  For example, a bathroom may be a room that contains
a plurality of urinals, toilets, sinks, showers, or the like, for use by one
or more persons.  The term bath is taken to include various forms of baths,
including a showerbath, steam bath, sauna bath, or swimming bath.  Thus a
room containing only one or more showers will still be considered to be a
bathroom even if there is no bath tub or other form of basin in this room.

Similarly, a mass decontamination facility, a washdown facility, a mass
delousing center, a cleansing station, or the like, is considered to be a

Likewise, an environment containing a whirlpool, jacuzzi, swimming pool,
or the like, will be considered to be a bathroom even if the fixture is not
located within the boundaries of an explicitly defined room.

For example, the environment around an outdoor swimming bath will still be
considered to be a bathroom, and to thus fall within the scope of this paper.


The sensor systems used in EXISTech Corporation's research prototype
bathroom facilities comprise standard video cameras with any infrared
blocking filters removed to make them sensitive in the infrared.
Because of mass production, a single camera costs much less than one
of the specialized sensors commonly used to automatically flush toilets
and urinals.  Moreover, further costs savings are introduced by the
fact that a single video camera can monitor a number of fixtures.  For
example, one video camera can monitor a whole row of urinals, to flush
only the urinals having been used.  Intelligent computer vision systems
monitor traffic flow patterns, so that a weaker flush is used when
others are standing in line to use the facilities, whereas a stronger
flush is provided after the last user of a group of users has finished.

Thus intelligent video based sensor technology will reduce initial
installation costs as well as operating costs, when compared to other
sensor technologies.

It is desired that a sensor system either passively observe the bath
environment or if it is an active vision system, that the active element
of its vision system appear invisible to the user of the bathroom.
Ideally even the passive element of the system is also concealed from
users, to prevent vandalism or experimentation with the sensors, or to
prevent the user from reverse engineering the sensors to learn how they work.

For example, the sensors are often built into or behind materials where the
sensors respond to light in a manner having lesser sensitivity to ordinary
human biological vision.  In this way, bathroom users cannot see
the sensors but the sensors can see the bathroom users.  A simple example
is the use of infrared cameras, which can be concealed behind surfaces
that are only transparent in the infrared.

A shiny vitreous material that a user can not see through may
at the same time gather some light to at least one camera or other
optical imaging system.

Camera based sensors can provide a much more intricate and sophisticated
form of control, because they can detect user behaviour, usage patterns,
traffic flow patterns, and other attributes not evident in traditional
bathroom presence or occupancy sensors.

However, since sensors often become the target of vandalism or
reverse-engineering by hackers trying to understand how they work,
concealment is often desirable.

Many bathroom surfaces are made of shiny glasslike materials such as
ceramic.  Thus viewing windows can be easily built into or concealed
in bathroom fixtures, walls, or other surfaces.

Such viewing windows typically include some or all of the following:
 = sapphire windows, ceramics, and vitrionic devices;
 = sapphire (alumina) infrared viewing windows;
 = optical ceramics;
 = glass, fiberglass;
 = vitreous china.
Such viewing windows will have a normal appearance to bathroom users.

In one embodiment, the sensors are concealed by a synchronized
electrochromic viewport which is preferably not synchronized, or easily
synchronizable by bathroom users attempting to reverse engineer the
bathroom control system.

Ordinarily the viewport will therefore appear more transmissive
to the video sensors than to biolotical human vision of bathroom users.

One of EXISTech Corporation's intelligent bathroom prototypes was recently
built at 80 Spadina Ave, in Toronto, in July of 2001.  See for example, for sample images.  See also
the results of our recent terrorism preparedness Decontamination Drill, that took place Thursday
July 5th, 2001, at the 80 Spadina Ave. site.

EXISTech's other intelligent bathrooms typically use various kinds of
image sensors, some within fixtures, some being part of actuators for
fixtures, some not in fixtures, and various possible connections and

Special optics preferably block visible light and pass infrared light, so
that the sensor is sensitive only to the infrared.  In this way, the sensor
can be an active sensor, or can be part of an active sensor system
in which infrared light is used to illuminate subject matter in
the bathroom.  Typically the optics consist of a dark smoked glass tile
cemented to the wall of the bathroom, together with other smoked glass tiles.
Such tiles have an appearance of ordinary black bathroom tiles, but
afford the sensros with a view of a detection zone in the bathroom.

In other cases, the optics is a camera lens, which also provides a
watertight seal in a cavity filling material such as an optical epoxy, so
that there is no air gap in the camera between the lens and an image sensor.
In this way the camera is sealed and completely water tight.   Preferably
the epoxy encapsulates the sensor as well as some processing circuits such
as portions of the image capture devices.

Different kinds of optical elements are being used in EXISTech Corporation's
experimental bathrooms.  For example ceiling domes that provide the sensor
with a wide field of view are being used for controlling a large number of
bathroom fixtures with just one sensor.  Many of the lowest cost cameras
have wide angle lenses.  A camera with a fisheye lens, such that when
placed on the ceiling of a shower room, can monitor the entire shower
room, and therefore a single sensor can be used to automaticate several

Users will enjoy a nice hot shower, without having to adjust the temperature,
or even touch anything at all.  Users simply step into the viewing area, or
detection zone, and the shower turns on.  Instantly, out comes water at the
perfect temperature!  When a user steps away to lather up with soap, the
water turns off.  When the user steps toward the spray head for a rinse,
the water turns on again.

Process control systems ensure that water is circulated in the pipes
at the right temperature, even when none of the showers are actually running.
With face recognition software, users can receive their own preferred shower
settings.  Additionally, multiple spray heads at each station can spray
a user with water in such a way that very little is wasted.  A beam pattern
of spray can adapt to the position and orientation of the user's body.

Pictures from a video capture device are directed to a processor which
provides a signal to a controller.  The controller activates one or more
solenoid valve actuators.  A shower room containing a dozen shower spray
heads, each controlled by its own actuator comprised of a solenoid
activated valve, may therefore be controlled by a single sensor on the
ceiling of the shower room.  Such a single sensor is out of the way of
vandalism, soap scum buildup, or other problems that would arise if a
dozen sensors were distributed throughout the shower room, one for each
shower head.

Moreover, maintenance and installation are simplified by having one image
sensor controlling various shower spray heads.  Additionally, the one image
sensor may provide other features such as automatically warning building
staff if a person has slipped and fallen, or automatically recognizing
faces of users, and providing each user with water tempered to the
preference of each individual user.  The video based motion detection
sensor will also act as a deterrent to crime and vandalism in the shower

A client/server model is implemented for all of the sensors in the
smart bathroom for the creation of a global network of smart bathrooms.
Each sensor may be implemented through Java aplets.  This permits any
level of sophistication desired.  While many installations are quite simple
(e.g. little interprocess communication), the degree of interprocess
and interfixture communication can be controlled remotely over the Internet.
This is useful for monitoring usage patterns for generating statistics
and for identifying areas of congestion in the restroom environment.
By identifying areas of possible congestion, these problems can often
be resolved with software.  Systems can be reprogrammed to respond
to users in slightly different ways, and therefore user behaviour can
be modified slightly.  Through slight modifications in user behaviour,
efficiency and restroom throughput can be increased.  For example,
the system might detect that, in a row of hand faucets, the furthest one
is used excessively during certain times of day.  It might be determined
that a homeless person is using it for hair washing purposes, especially
if it is somewhat hidden from view.  The system can detect this pattern
of deviant use, and correct it by adjusting the timing on that particular
fixture so that it will time out sooner than the others.  This would
effectively move that user to another faucet.  Thus slight changes in
system parameters can be used to effect slight changes in user behaviour.

Software, such as Java aplets, allow restroom fixtures to communicate with
each other, and to communicate with remote sites.  Whether the building owner
wants to delight users with responsive, predictive fixtures, or please users
by keeping the restroom crime-free, the owner can be sure that everyone will
be happier, and profits will increase.  If crime ever does become a problem,
sensors can transmit crime statistics back to a central law enforcement
facility.  Using VitriView (TM) ceramics for the optics can ensure
outstanding image quality, and will provide excellent greyscale rendition
and tonal fidelity, even in poor light.  If crime is a problem,
CeramiView(TM) tiles can be replaced with SafetyGlass (TM) tiles (from
EXISTech Corporation's public safety products devision), which are known
for their color rendition.  Proper white balancing of the sensors to
compensate for the greenish color cast of fluorescent lights or other
bathroom fixtures will ensure forensic quality of the images for use in
courtroom proceedings.  As with all video-based machine vision technology,
accurate color reproduction in the presence of mixed lighting (as when
natural daylight entering through windows mixes with fluorescent lights)
may be addressed with ATW (Auto Tracking White) sensors.  Hair colour,
eye colour, and even the colour of clothing are important identifiers of
those who might, whether through vandalism or recklessness, reduce profits
and the satisfaction of other users.  Rapid apprehension of suspects is
important to maintaining a crime-free airport, shopping mall, arena, or
other establishment.  Drug use will fall, and everyone will be happier,
except those with something to hide, such as terrorists, theives, or those
engaged in other forms of criminal activity.

Additionally, the intelligent bathroom fixtures and systems will help
enhance the privacy of users.  Privacy enhancing fixtures and bathroom
control systems ensure that normal users need not be disturbed by police
foot patrols into the restroom areas, or by security guards entering
simply to make inspections.  Thus the aquionics bathroom control system
of the invention will maintain the cleanliness, safety, security, and
privacy of the occupants in a smart building.  Aquionics refers to this
kind of electronic control of water in plumbing systems.


[The text of Figure 1 may also be used as a sidebar for this article]
Figure 1 depicts the data output from an infrared sensor operated 
faucet, wherein an infrared emitter, and infrared detector are
up inside the spout of the faucet.  The infrared detector returns
a byte array having 240 rows and 320 columns.

Figure 2 depicts the data output from an infrared sensor operated
urinal, wherein the infrared emitter and detector are ceiling mounted.

Figure 3 depicts a smart light fixture consisting of a long fluorescent
light fixture having two video sensors, one at each end.  The light
fixture, as shown in the figure, is mounted above a row of urinals.
The sensors each have a clear view of a detection zone where bathroom
users might be standing in front of any one of the four urinals.

Because the lamp is generally hot, we find that the heat
drives out any small amount of moisture present, or at
least lowers the relative humidity since relative humidity
decreases with increasing temperature inside the fixture.

Therefore the optics tends not to fog up due to bathroom moisture,
even when placed in shower rooms.

The intelligent light fixture provides the advantage that the two
cameras will be spaced an exactly known distance apart, and have an
exactly known relative orientation.  In this way, the epipolar geometry
is known or determined in advance of installation.  Thus the light
fixture provides a conveniently calibrated stereo rig.

A typical lamp such as a fluorescent light has a convenient length
that allows the two cameras to have a good baseline distance between
them, so that they are nicely separated, yet the distance and orientation
between them remain fixed by the intelligent light fixture.

Additionally, since the light from the light fixture is known in relation
to the sensors, the stereo rig is also photocalibrated,
in the sense that the light source distribution and orientation, etc.,
are known with respect to the sensors.

The light fixture also contains infrared LEDs, so that it can
communicate wirelessly with the actuators in the plumbing
fixtures located below the light fixture.

In the figure, four urinals are shown, with a user standing
at the urinal second from the right.  When the user departs,
as determined by the video sensors, the intelligent light fixture
wirelessly sends a signal to the actuator af the urinal second
from the right, to flush that urinal.

Additional functions of the intelligent light fixture can be provided,
such as to reduce crime, or to detect abnormal activity.  An additional
function may also be simply to automate the function of the light fixture
itself, or to automate the function of other light fixtures in the
facility.  Each intelligent light fixture communicates wirelessly with
other intelligent light fixtures and, based on a map of where people
are located in the bathroom, the light fixture outputs are gradually
raised and lowered so that a lightspace is present around the persons
in the bathroom, but light is not wasted.  This system also avoids the
abrupt start and stop of lights that might startle the bathroom
user.  Instead the lights gradually rise and fall in output, to track
the users, so that users are not even aware they are being tracked.
In a large bathroom facility such as a locker room complex, the benefit
in light savings from video based tracking is provided together with
intelligent control of many fixtures throughtout the facility.  The
bathroom ventillation systems can also be incorporated into this system
to provide for an intelligent energy-efficient facility.

The intelligent bathroom control system includes smart fixtures,
smart lighting, and other sensors that all communicate with one another
to create a user-friendly environment.

Additional features include user safety and security, by way of watching
the user to make sure that the user is attended to when encountering
danger through tripping and falling, such as when slipping on a soapy
shower room floor.  Additional benefits to the occupants of such a building
include reduced crime, reduced danger, and improved safety, security,
and efficiency.


Figure 4 shows the use of a SmarTile (TM) tile in an intelligent bathroom.
SmarTiles (TM) manufactured by EXISTech Corporation, are available in black,
chrome, gold, and copper, and add a nice accent to a tiled wall, such as a
bathroom wall.  The aesthetics of an otherwise stark wall of solid white
tile is much improved with, for example, one or two rows of SmarTile black

In the installation show, there is behind-the-wall access.
At the time of construction, a row of CeramiView (TM) tiles is run
around the outside of the bathroom.  The tiles comprise optics
and viewport.  Normal tiles such as plain white bathroom tiles
look nice together with the CeramiView tiles.

Prior to installation of any tiles, it is decided at what height a row
of SmarTile will be installed.  Alternatively, especially if the viewtiles
are to be mixed with ordinary white bathroom tile, two rows of SmarTile
can be run for a better aesthetic, even if only one row of the tiles is
going to be used for monitoring the bathroom environment.  A double row
creates a sense of visual balance.

In a typical installation, for example, over a row of urinals,
there may be one row of SmarTile that runs just above where the
urinals will be installed.  This is the active row where the sensors
are contained.  A second row of SmarTile a couple of tiles further up, is
often placed simply for aesthetics (e.g. none of these tiles need be used
for viewing users of the urinals).

Once it has been decided where to place the view tiles, viewing holes are
drilled in the bathroom wall.  It is preferable that the view tiles then be
cemented to the wall before cementing the other tiles to the wall.
Preferably, before cementing the viewtiles to the wall, the wall, especially
where the holes have been drilled, is cleaned and painted black.

After the viewtiles are cemented to the wall, regular tile (from another
vendor, or from EXISTech Corp.) is installed around the SmarTile viewtiles.

With SmarTile, the sensors are completely hidden from view.  Moreover,
the users will not know which tiles have sensors behind them.  Vandalism,
whether arising from malicious hate of a better future, or simply arising
from curiosity, costs us all.  Through complete concealment of all sensory
apparatus, vandalism is eliminated, resulting in increased savings, and
increased profits.  Moreover, in shower room applications, soap and shampoo
that often splashes onto the wall and runs down the wall, will not get
clogged into exposed lenses.  Sensor products from other vendors quickly
clog with soap residue, due to the inset lenses.  Again, soapy lenses
produce blurry images.  A sharp clear view of bathroom users will keep them
happy by delivering the utmost in fixture responsiveness and user-satisfaction.

High quality pictures assist facility managers in monitoring restroom usage
patterns, to help reduce or eliminate deviant behaviour such as excessively
long showering, shaving in the shower room, vagrancy, the washing of clothes
in the shower room.  Using the appropriate software, with artificial
intelligence, management can be sure to maximize user satisfaction by
making certain one inconsiderate user does not decrease the
user-satisfaction of other users.

Additionally, a dense lattice of image sensors in the bathroom environment
can have a large range of secondary uses.  Web-based client/server software
can ensure maximum efficiency, optimal traffic flow, and increased
user-satisfaction.  Users will appreciate the efforts taken to make their
experience pleasant.

Moreover, dummy tiles can be installed, or viewtiles can be installed and
never used, so that users will never know whether or not they are being
watched by the intelligent building, The use of SmarTile simply because
if its outstanding appearance and durability, thus provides additional
safety and security.  Simply installing SmarTile, even without any sensors
whatsoever, will put an end to petty locker room pilfering, vandalism, or
graffiti in bathrooms.


Figure 5 shows EXISTech's smart bath tub.  Bath tubs and shower enclosures
are often made of acrylic, or of polycarbonate.  EXISTech tubs are made
of smoked polycarbonate, or smoked acrylic, so that the bathtub itself
forms the sensor's optics.  Such a tub will have a black appearance to a
user of the tub, but image sensors concealed under the tub will be able to
see the user of the tub.  Additional image sensors may also be concealed
behind the dark transparent bath tub material in such a way that they
provide a field of view of the bather above and below the waterline during
a typical bath.

The intelligent bath tub has no knobs, or other adjustments, and is therefore
much easier to use.  The user simply undresses and and sits in the tub,
and then the tub fills with water automatically by way of activation of
a solenoid valve actuator.  Sensors also monitor the amount of 
water in the tub, and as the tub gets close to full, the water flow is
gradually reduced.  A sophisticated control system is possible without
much cost, since the sensors and processors and controllers are already 

Software running on the image processor and controller determines if the user
is clothed (e.g. when a user is cleaning the tub) and only fills the tub
when the user is not clothed (indicating that the user wishes to have a bath).

Additionally, if the system sees that the user is standing naked in the
tub enclosure, the shower is turned on automatically.  The distinction
between shower and bath is made possible because the camera sensors allow
the computer to distinguish between when a bather is sitting or standing.

Thus the intelligent bath tub serves users of the tub by way of control of
various actuators in response to user activity.

Moreover, if the bather's head goes underwater, the system will also
automatically drain the tub, to prevent drowning.  Thus the intelligent
bathroom can save lives.

The explanation of this tub has assumed that there is only one user, but the
invention can also be applied to multi user baths such as whirlpools,
jacuzzis, steam rooms, and other bathing environments.  For example,
a bath can begin to fill when a user sits in the tub, and then jets can
massage the user's body.  If another user enters the tub, other jets can
be activated for that other user.  A pattern of jets can operate for optimal
user satisfaction, given the distribution of users in the bath.

In a sauna bath, heat flow can be directed in response to the occupants of the
sauna, so that the majority of users experience the best sauna bath that the
bathroom environment can provide, through intelligent control of air jets,
heaters, and ventillation systems.  Additionally, the system can detect
the onset of drowning, hyperthermia, or slip and fall injuries, and respond
appropriately by ejection of water, shutdown of the sauna or steam room
heaters, and automated remote call for help.

The partially transparent material of the plumbing fixture of the invention
is not limited to baths, but also includes other fixtures such as urinals
and water closets.  For example, a Securinal (TM) privacy-protecting
drug testing urinal is made of smoked glass, and contains camera sensors
to provide the automatic flush functionality, with a secondary concomitant
function of protecting privacy.  Privacy is a problem with drug testing
because it is often necessary for persons to urinate in the presence of
a supervisory staff member who ensures that the subject of the drug test
does not cheat by using other urine smuggled into the test center.
With the Securinal (TM), however, the subject can enjoy complete privacy
while urinating into a drug analysis urinal that also keeps a video record
of the urine delivery process.  In this way the subject can be completely
alone while urinating, and this will serve useful especially for subjects
suffering from shy bladder syndrome.  Privacy is the right to be left alone,
and thus Securinal greatly protects the privacy of individuals undergoing
drug testing.


Fig. 6:
Figure 6 shows a six station sensor operated column shower.
Optics is comprised of a single sheet of smoked polycarbonate that
was heated and bent around the outside circumference of the round column,
and then inserted inside, after six viewing holes were drilled.
Some further pictures of the sensor operated column shower in actual
usage (men's shower room) are shown in

A typical installation of this invention uses optics with approximately
15% transmissivity, so that the degree of light coming back from light
that first passes into the viewing window and back out is 2.25%, which
falls nicely below the 4% level of light reflected from typical such material.
This allows color cameras to be used in as the motion sensors.  When the
column is used as a regular shower in a typical locker room setting,
it can also double as a mass decontamination facility in times of emergency,
thus having full color video feeds assists remote decon officers in
determining, for example, if a powder on a patient's body is grey powder
such as anthrax, or some other color of powder.  In a typical installation,
one such column is placed in the hexagonal men's shower room of a mass
decontamination facility as described in Canadian Patent 02303611, whereas
another is placed in the women's shower room.  Since there are six cameras
in each shower and six cameras in the central triage room described in
Canadian Patent 02303611, there are a total of 18 cameras, which can be
displayed on two television sets as a 3 by 3 mosaic of images (a 9-up image
on each TV).  This allows two TV sets to be used, one for the men's side
and the other for the women's side.  A square lattice of images ensures the
same aspect ratio of any one image, so that the images efficiently use the
TV screen real estate at the decon officer's station.

An adhesive sealant makes the inside of the column water tight.
Six video cameras are installed in the column with a 45 degree mirror on
each one.  Every second camera is pointing up from underneath, while the
other three point down from above.
A PC104 computer embodies video capture devices in the column to control
the six separate solenoid valve actuators.

Appropriate software detects the presence of users,
and turns on the appropriate showerheads where flesh is detected.
In this way no water is wasted.


In the tradition of good scientific data analysis, the datasets used
in these experiments are being made available under the GNU General Public
License, Version 2.

The infrared sensor arrays returns 240 rows and 320 columns as byte
arrays, which are stored in pgm files. The infrared sensor plumbing
systems manufactured by EXISTech Corp., are based on active sensors
that provide their own source of infrared light. The sensors also
incorporate AGC (Automatic Gain Control), and are modeled by
comparametric equations as described in
Live sensor data will also be provided from EXISTech's Toronto Branch
office for testing of algorithms for realtime sensor operated plumbing
The following sets of datasets each contain a wide variety of sensor
data sequences:
     * faucet: Infrared sensor installed up inside faucet spout.
     * faucets: Infrared sensor installed on ceiling above multiple
     * urinal: Infrared sensor installed on ceiling above urinal
     * urinals: Single sensor installed on ceiling to control multiple
     * toilet: Infrared sensor installed on ceiling above toilet.
     * toilets: Sensor installed on ceiling at stall boundary to control
       2 toilets.
     * shower: Infrared sensor operated shower
     * showers: Six showers controlled by a single infrared sensor
     * bath: Sensor detects bather in tub; distinguishes sitting versus
     * dryer: Hot air hand dryer with sensor operation
     * soap: Touchless soap dispenser

The datasets "faucet" and "urinal" are provided in the online archive
at and the other datasets as well as online
data can be provided by contacting the author.

Additionally, a new theoretical framework for Knowledge Representation
based on this material is included from
[which may be useful as a sidebar for this article].


By using video based sensors, the intelligent bathroom provides a safe,
hygenic, and user friendly environment that responds automatically to the
needs of the user.  Concomitant functions, such as security, drowning
prevention, and other safety features are possible with the intelligent
bathroom.  It is assumed that the benefits of automation of fixtures will
cause sensors to be installed in virtually all bathrooms of the future.
It is also expected that the most economical sensors will be video
cameras, which now only cost $10 in mass production, whereas other sensors
such as specialized infrared position sensing devices now used in electronic
plumbing systems cost much more because they are specialized devices.
Similarly radar and sonar systems commonly used for occupancy detection
(for automatic door openers, lighting control, etc.) cost much more.
Therefore once these cameras are installed in most bathrooms, new uses,
such as automation of lighting, automatic bathroom door openers,
automatic call for help in case of slip and fall injury, and
automated drowning prevention will emerge.