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                                                                                                             DoD 51 OO.52-M

                                                  CHAPTER 7

                                    CONTAMINATION CONTROL

7-1 CONTAMINATION CONTROL                                            a station separate from that used for response force
  a. General. Contamination control minimizes the
spread of contamination; therefore, rigid, established                    (1) Monitoring and Decontaminating Potentially
operating procedures must be followed to achieve the                 Exposed Medical Treatment Facilities. Immediately
objective of contamination control. It consists of                   following an accident, injured personnel maybe removed
                                                                     for medical treatment, or fatalities may be moved to
    (1) Initial monitoring upon determine the             a hospital or morgue without being monitored for
preliminary site characterization and personnel                      contamination. The potential contamination of a
contamination.                                                       medical treatment facility or ambulance could present
    (2) Anti-contamination procedures to minimize the                a health problem for the staff and other patients.
spread of contamination.                                             Therefore, judgments must be made as to whether
    (3) Strict contamination control line procedures to              casualties have been removed from the contaminated
control contamination spread during response/  recov-                area and, if so, what facilities are involved. Those
ery/ restoration operations.                                         facilities and the transportation resources used should
                                                                     be notified of the potential problem. Paragraph 14-5
  b. Personnel Monitoring and Decontamination.                       describes procedures a medical facility may use to control
Personnel who were potentially exposed during the                    the spread of contamination. Dispatch of a radiological
accident, subsequent cloud passage, or post-accident                 monitoring team to check the vehicles and facilities
entry into the contaminated area should be given a high              involved for contamination, and to assist in decontam-
priority in response actions. People to be considered                ination or other measures, as appropriate, to prevent
include casualties; bystanders and sightseers; military              the spread of contamination should be given the highest
and civilian response personnel; and residents, business             priority.
employees and customers in the contaminated area.                         (2) Contamination Control Station  (CCS).
Initial definition of the perimeter of the contaminated
area was discussed previously. Early definition of the                      (a) The CC$ employs a contamination reduction
perimeter is  jrnportant  so potentially contaminated                area (CRA) c&cept.  The CRA is used to eliminate (or
people may be identified, and measures taken to prevent              reduce to an acceptable level) contamination of
the contamination of additional people. Initially, the               personnel operating in the contaminated area. With the
military may have the only effective radiation detection             processing of personnel through the CCS, there is the
instruments at  :he scene and may monitor potentially                possibility of a movement of contamination upwind
contaminated  clvdians. Responsibility for monitoring                through the CCS. Therefore, the CCS should be set up
civilians will shift to the DoE, state radiation control             in a facility or tent to minimize dispersing by the wind
personnel or civilian authorities/ representatives as they           of contaminants on boots, gloves, or anti-contamination
arrive on-scene with appropriate instruments. Monitor-               suits. The CCS employs kraft paper, plastic, or drop
ing of personnel is normally done at a Contamination                 cloths to collect contamination that may fall from anti-
Control Station  (CCS), however during the initial                   contamination clothing. Also, the CCS uses supervised,
response when  the number of radiation detection                     structured, and meticulous anti-contamination suits
instruments and monitoring personnel is limited,                     and /or clothing removal procedures to preclude a
alternative procedures must be devised if large numbers              mechanical transfer of contamination outside the CCS.
of people are involved. Depending on resources and                          (b) Persons present  at the accident site or in
requirements, the  OSC may decide to establish more                  known contaminated areas must be identified and
than one CCS. If sufficient resources exist to support               screened to determine whether decontamination or other
multiple stations, processing contaminated or potentially Corrective action is required. Normally this action is done
contaminated civilian residents may be desirable through             at a CCS. Casualties should be monitored and



decontaminated to the extent injuries permit, however,               Contamination of the upper chest or neck and head
urgent medical treatment has priority and exceptions                 area is indicative of exposure to airborne contamination.
may be necessary. Procedures for handling contaminated               If radiation detection instruments are unavailable to
casualties are in paragraph 14-5. An example of a CCS                monitor the people involved, procedures to decontam-
is shown in Figure 7-1. When processing a large group                inate all people coming from the contaminated area
of people, this type station will process a person about             should be used immediately. Provisions should be made
every four minutes if no contamination is found. If                  to monitor them later when instruments are available.
equipment and monitors are available, additional lines               Such a procedure would require provisions to collect
should be established in the station to process large                and receipt for clothing, shower and shampoo the people,
numbers of people. When processing people whose                      and issue replacement clothing. Each article of clothing
personal clothing is contaminated, the clothing should               should be bagged separately, if feasible, and all clothing
be bagged separately and a receipt issued for those                  placed in a single large bag and a receipt issued. Watches,
articles retained. A priority system should be established           jewelry, and the contents of pockets and pocketbooks
to permit immediate processing of EOD personnel,                     should not be highly contaminated, if at all, and should
monitor team leaders, and others whose presence or                   be retained by the individual. Although the contami-
information is needed to facilitate other response                   nation may be retained wjth the clothing, an over-riding
operations. The location of the contamination control                need exists to assure the people that they are being cared
station should be governed by the following constraints:             for. Therefore, a gym or other facility with dressing
                                                                     rooms and  high capacity showers may be appropriate
         J. It must be located in an area free of                    for processing people. Soap, shampoo, towels, and
contamination.                                                       stocks of replacement clothing must be obtained. People
         ~. It ideally will be located directly upwind of            processed in this manner, and their collected clothing,
the accident, but terrain or other considerations may                should be monitored as soon as possible. Uncontam-
dictate another location. If not upwind, it must be far              inated clothing should be returned at the ear!iest possible
enough away to prevent airborne or resuspended                       time.
contamination from entering the CCS.                                   c. Vehicle Monitoring. Vehicles used by the response
         ~. Initially, it should be located outside the              force in the contaminated area will remain there for
fragmentation zone as well as beyond the perimeter of                future use and not require immediate monitoring or
the contaminated area. After all explosives have been                decontamination. If members of the public in the
rendered safe, the CCS may be moved closer to the                    contaminated area are sent, or go, to the CCS or other
accident site if appropriate.                                        processing points using their own vehicles, the vehicle
         ~. It should be in an area relatively free of               should be monitored before being moved away from
weeds, bushes, and rocks. A paved or flat, compacted                 the area. An example of a vehicle  CCS is shown in
surface is recommended.                                              Figure 7-2. All outer surfaces and the air filter may have
                                                                     been contaminated by airborne contamination, while
       (3) Alternative Procedures. If an accident occurs             wheel wells, tires, and the rear end may be contaminated
near a populated area and several hundred people are                 from driving across contaminated areas. Unless the
potentially contaminated, available radiation detection              windows were down, or ventilators open, detectable
instruments and monitoring personnel may be inade-                   contamination of the interior is most likely on those
quate to process the people fully and quickly. The                   surfaces in contact with the vehicle occupants, for
assumption is that the potentially contaminated people               example, floorboards and seats. If only external surfaces
are not response personnel. [f only a few radiation                  of a vehicle are contaminated, decontamination  shouId
detection instruments are available, use of an abbreviated           be relatively easy to perform, if done before bonding
monitoring procedure may be considered to expedite                   between the contaminant and the vehicles paint occurs.
processing. Contamination of the hands, seat, and shoes              Also, rapid decontamination and return of private
or lower legs may be caused by handling contaminated                 vehicles may reassure the public "that consideration is
objects or moving and sitting in contaminated areas.                 being given to their interests and property.



                                       Contamination Area Line

Wind Direction         I                                                                              Contaminated
     m                                Chair      Shoe Covers           Chair
                                      K  o m
                                                  (Hot Line)                                             o
    "cl                                        Clothing
                                                                                         R                            t
                            Chair                      Chair                                   Air
                            K                          n
              100-6           )M .                                                                              20M
                                      (1 Masks

 Decontamination I
      S t a t i o n                   Water \
                                               BWash Station
                                                        n -Soap

                                      contamination Control Line
                       t                               El-Medical Station
                  61 O-1OOOM

                             CLEAN AREA                                                  Repair

                       ~ Buffer Zone
                            ~                                                   Disaster Cordon

                                       Figure 7-1. Contamination Control Station (Example).



                                              Contamination  Area Line

Wind Direction                                                                                  E

    Hot Line



                                             Area                              )'Sump

                                          Monitoring I
    Contamination Control Line

                                                 Vehicle Exit                                   nParkingArea
                                                  CLEAN AREA

                                  Figure 7-2. Vehicle Contamination Control Station Example.