Abstract for The Code of Ethics on Human Augmentation, version 1.1

The possibility that artificially intelligent (AI) machines may some day pose a risk is well-known [1]. Less understood, but more immediately pressing, are the risks that "enhancements" to human intellect [5, 7] -- whether to individual people people or organizations -- may present us with adjustments or even crises fully as vexing as any offered up by AI. Such enhancements or augmentations are arguably already here, in that contemporary , well-equipped citizens may "see" (via media, remote sensors or internet) and "know or recall" (via vast datastores and wikis) orders of magnitude more nearly instant knowledge (along with falsehoods) than our meat brains and senses ever provided.

Augmentation can further be facilitated by pharmacology, implants, neural conditioning, games, and other means formerly solely discussed in science fiction. In this missive we shall focus on wearable or implantable intelligence, receiving ever more pervasive and possibly invasive sensing, computation, and communication, much of it potentially conveyed by "smart buildings", "smart cities" (a camera in every streetlight), or "cyborg accessories". As we augment our bodies and our societies to pull in and evaluate ever-more information, there comes a point when we ourselves become these technologies (what Minsky, Kurzweil, and Mann refer to as the "Sensory Singularity"[10]). This sensory intelligence augmentation technology is already developed enough to be dangerous in the wrong hands, e.g. as a way for some corrupt government or corporation to further augment its power and use it unjustly. Ironically, these technological advances - if monopolized - will surely bring about restoration of humanity's old and classic system of oppressive and foolish governance: feudalism. The alternative, to prevent such power and information monopolies, will likely prevent tyranny and empower citizenship, but may bring problems of its own.

Accordingly we have spent a number of years developing a Code of Ethics on Human Augmentation [9], further developed at IEEE ISTAS 2013 and IEEE GEM 2015 (the "Toronto Code"), resulting in three fundamental "laws".